Original Research Paper by C. Zhuge and C. Wang, Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, February 2021
The future Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are likely to be electric. We started with a review of the adoption of AVs, Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Autonomous Electric Vehicles (AEVs), as well as the six associated urban sub-systems, namely transportation, land use, environment, energy, economy, and population systems, in order to find evidence about the linkages and interactions between the diffusion of AEVs and the six sub-systems. Based on the review, we argued that an integrated urban model, which takes the linkages and interactions into account, was needed to fully understand the adoption and impacts of AEVs. Furthermore, we conducted a conceptual design of an integrated model for AEVs (without explicit modelling), and demonstrated how to update an existing agent-based Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) model by incorporating AEV components. The resulting integrated model of AEVs would help different AEV-related stakeholders (e.g., local authorities) in their decision-making.